I use this method to label different key proteins in the tissue using highly specific primary antibodies, and visualize their localization using sensitive secondary antibodies conjugated with fluorescent dyes, heavy metal particles or other chemically active molecules.
After labeling proteins of interest in the tissue with fluorescent immunohistochemical techniques, confocal microscopy can be used for detailed imaging with several hundreds of nanometers of lateral and axial resolution.
After identifying target structures via brightfield microscopy, I embed the tissue into epoxy resin and prepare ultrathin physical sections of 70-100 nanometers to examine the ultrastructure of the tissue.
I inject genetically modified adeno-associated or rabies virus particles or other biologically active substances to label a specific cell population and its inputs or outputs in the mouse brain.
Using viral gene transfer, I transfect genetically defined cell populations with light-sensitive opsins to increase or decrease their activity with fiberoptics implants in awake, behaving mice.
I use various behavioral tests to monitor the emotional state, learning capabilities or memory functions of freely moving, awake mice.
After expressing genetically encoded fluorescent calcium-indicators by viral gene transfer and implanting a gradient refractive index lens, I monitor the activity of up to hundreds of neurons in awake, behaving mice using femtosecond two-photon excitation.
By implanting a gradient refractive index lens into the brain and attaching a light-weight, miniature microscope on the skull, I can simultaneously monitor the activity of several hundreds of neurons in mice performing freely moving behavior.